The crack tip is the place where damage occurs in fatigue. Characterization of crack tip properties is very important in the study of fatigue life. We need to know the real crack initiation and propagation mechanisms during the entire fatigue life. The crack initiation process is related to the early stages of corrosion damage and is much more difficult to detect in the field. The knowledge of the crack tip properties is of great importance for the prediction of fatigue life of the component. The understanding of the nature of the crack tip is also very important in fatigue crack propagation. Crack tip investigations are very important because the crack tip is the place where damage occurs in fatigue. This book chapter is a review of information obtained from applied electrochemical techniques such as Linear Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (LEIS), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), in order to observe the early stages of corrosion fatigue damage.[Quantification of left ventricular function and wall motion in post-infarction patients with right ventricular infarction by 2-dimensional echocardiography].
We investigated the left ventricular function and wall motion in patients with post-infarction right ventricular infarction (RVI) by two-dimensional echocardiography. Fifty-eight patients with post-infarction RVI were classified into two groups: RVI with left ventricular wall motion disorder (LVWD) and RVI with left ventricular wall motion recovery (LVMR). There was no significant difference of the heart rate, left ventricular systolic pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure between the two groups. The endocardial area of the left ventricle was significantly larger in LVWD than in LVMR, but the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index was significantly larger in LVWD than in LVMR. The left ventricular ejection fraction of LVWD was significantly lower than that of LVMR. In the LVWD, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index was significantly larger than that in LVMR and the left ventricular end-diastolic area was significantly smaller than that in LVMR.
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