The group Razor 1911 rose to prominence during the '80's. Their #1 target was the IBM PC compatible family of computers. They made no secret of cracking software for the Commodore 64, Amiga PC, and other systems. They were key players in Operation Fastlink, a low-profile operation that shut down over thirty bulletin board systems in Europe in 1988. The FBI and other US law enforcement agencies questioned a number of people involved in this operation including the founder and president, Henrik Rafaelsen. In 1989 he was charged with conspiracy to distribute unauthorized software and other charges. The publicity and media attention the operation caused would have significant consequences for the burgeoning crack scene. The defense's case would become the subject of the court case United States v. Tordoff and Tordoff. This was the trial of two people who ran Razor 1911: Henrik Rafaelsen's brother, Michael. The defendants were found guilty on all counts.
They also claimed that HMAC was a "vulnerability," and when they cracked a game, they didn't claim the game was "cracked" but only that their HMAC proved the game to have a vulnerability. This was an argument that gained popular support in the community, although in the end it was Gamasutra who wrote the best summation of the Razor story: “The HMAC argument is that games are not the kind of product for which a user has a reasonable expectation that the seller will deliver what the user thinks is the intended product. The cracked software says nothing about the product as intended, only that it doesn’t work as it was intended to. According to the argument, because the promise of the product is not kept, there is no breach of contract, and real damages cannot be proven.”
In 2004, they released all the assets of a mini sim game, available for download in the form of a.zip file here http://whitedox.net/game/index-2.zip. It was listed on the Ubisoft website, even though it was only the assets of a title that never got released. d2c66b5586