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Daiichi Sankyo is dedicated to creating new modalities and innovative medicines by leveraging our world-class science and technology for our purpose to contribute to the enrichment of quality of life around the world. In addition to our current portfolio of medicines for cancer and cardiovascular disease, Daiichi Sankyo is primarily focused on developing novel therapies for people with cancer as well as other diseases with high unmet medical needs.
The Foundation now operates more than 20 personal funds and has received over 115 million Swiss francs in donations, of which over a third has already been distributed or committed. Its donors have been highly committed to the fight against cancer, with over 15 million spent on the cause.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is the federal government's principal agency for cancer research and training. The NCI coordinates the National Cancer Program, which conducts and supports research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to the cause, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cancer, rehabilitation from cancer, and the continuing care of cancer patients and the families of cancer patients.
Founded in 1896, Roche continues to search for better ways to prevent, diagnose and treat diseases and make a sustainable contribution to society. The company also aims for improving patient access to medical innovations by working with all relevant stakeholders. Twenty-nine medicines developed by Roche are included in the World Health Organization Model Lists of Essential Medicines, among them life-saving antibiotics, antimalarials and cancer medicines.
Numerous outdoor air pollutants such as PAHs increase the risk of cancers, especially lung cancer. PAHs can adhere to fine carbon particles in the atmosphere and thus penetrate our bodies primarily through breathing. Long-term exposure to PAH-containing air in polluted cities was found to increase the risk of lung cancer deaths. Aside from PAHs and other fine carbon particles, another environmental pollutant, nitric oxide, was found to increase the risk of lung cancer in a European population of nonsmokers. Other studies have shown that nitric oxide can induce lung cancer and promote metastasis. The increased risk of childhood leukemia associated with exposure to motor vehicle exhaust was also reported (64).
Nonionizing radiation derived primarily from sunlight includes UV rays, which are carcinogenic to humans. Exposure to UV radiation is a major risk for various types of skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Along with UV exposure from sunlight, UV exposure from sunbeds for cosmetic tanning may account for the growing incidence of melanoma. Depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere can augment the dose-intensity of UVB and UVC, which can further increase the incidence of skin cancer.
The first FDA approved chemopreventive agent was tamoxifen, for reducing the risk of breast cancer. This agent was found to reduce the breast cancer incidence by 50% in women at high risk. With tamoxifen, there is an increased risk of serious side effects such as uterine cancer, blood clots, ocular disturbances, hypercalcemia, and stroke ( ). Recently it has been shown that a osteoporosis drug raloxifene is as effective as tamoxifen in preventing estrogen-receptor-positive, invasive breast cancer but had fewer side effects than tamoxifen. Though it is better than tamoxifen with respect to side effects, it can cause blood clots and stroke. Other potential side effects of raloxifene include hot flashes, leg cramps, swelling of the legs and feet, flu-like symptoms, joint pain, and sweating ( ).
Fruits, vegetables, spices, condiments and cereals with potential to prevent cancer. Fruits include 1 apple, 2 apricot, 3 banana, 4 blackberry, 5 cherry, 6 citrus fruits, 7 dessert date, 8 durian, 9 grapes, 10 guava, 11 Indian gooseberry, 12 mango, 13 malay apple, 14 mangosteen, 15 pineapple, 16 pomegranate. Vegetables include 1 artichok, 2 avocado, 3 brussels sprout, 4 broccoli, 5 cabbage, 6 cauliflower, 7 carrot, 8 daikon 9 kohlrabi, 10 onion, 11 tomato, 12 turnip, 13 ulluco, 14 water cress, 15 okra, 16 potato, 17 fiddle head, 18 radicchio, 19 komatsuna, 20 salt bush, 21 winter squash, 22 zucchini, 23 lettuce, 24 spinach. Spices and condiments include 1 turmeric, 2 cardamom, 3 coriander, 4 black pepper, 5 clove, 6 fennel, 7 rosemary, 8 sesame seed, 9 mustard, 10 licorice, 11 garlic, 12 ginger, 13 parsley, 14 cinnamon, 15 curry leaves, 16 kalonji, 17 fenugreek, 18 camphor, 19 pecan, 20 star anise, 21 flax seed, 22 black mustard, 23 pistachio, 24 walnut, 25 peanut, 26 cashew nut. Cereals include 1 rice, 2 wheat, 3 oats, 4 rye, 5 barley, 6 maize, 7 jowar, 8 pearl millet, 9 proso millet, 10 foxtail millet, 11 little millet, 12 barnyard millet, 13 kidney bean, 14 soybean, 15 mung bean, 16 black bean, 17 pigeon pea, 18 green pea, 19 scarlet runner bean, 20 black beluga, 21 brown spanish pardina, 22 green, 23 green (eston), 24 ivory white, 25 multicolored blend, 26 petite crimson, 27 petite golden, 28 red chief.
The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of oral Curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer have also been studied. In a study of patients with advanced colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapies, 15 patients received Curcuma extract daily for up to 4 months. Results showed that oral Curcuma extract was well tolerated, and dose-limiting toxic effects were not observed. Another study showed that in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, a daily dose of 3.6 g of curcumin engendered a 62% decrease in inducible prostaglandin E2 production on day 1 and a 57% decrease on day 29 in blood samples taken 1 h after dose administration.
An early clinical trial with 62 cancer patients with external cancerous lesions at various sites (breast, 37; vulva, 4; oral, 7; skin, 7; and others, 11) reported reductions in the sense of smell (90% of patients), itching (almost all patients), lesion size and pain (10% of patients), and exudates (70% of patients) after topical application of an ointment containing curcumin. In a phase 1 clinical trial, a daily dose of 8,000 mg of curcumin taken by mouth for 3 months resulted in histologic improvement of precancerous lesions in patients with uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (one of four patients), intestinal metaplasia (one of six patients), bladder cancer (one of two patients), and oral leukoplakia (two of seven patients).
The histopathological changes observed after treatment with anethole were comparable to those after treatment with the standard cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide. The frequency of micronuclei occurrence and the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes showed anethole to be mitodepressive and nonclastogenic in the femoral cells of mice. In 1996, Sen et al., (85) studied the NF-κB inhibitory activity of a derivative of anethole and anetholdithiolthione. Their study results showed that anethole inhibited H2O2, phorbol myristate acetate or TNF alpha induced NF-κB activation in human jurkat T-cells (86) studied the anticarcinogenic activity of anethole trithione against DMBA induced in a rat mammary cancer model. The study results showed that this phytochemical inhibited mammary tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner.
How do whole grains reduce the risk of cancer Several potential mechanisms have been described. For instance, insoluble fibers, a major constituent of whole grains, can reduce the risk of bowel cancer (103). Additionally, insoluble fiber undergoes fermentation, thus producing short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which is an important suppressor of tumor formation (104). Whole grains also mediate favorable glucose response, which is protective against breast and colon cancers (105). Also, several phytochemicals from grains and pulses were reported to have chemopreventive action against a wide variety of cancers. For example, isoflavones (including daidzein, genistein, and equol) are nonsteroidal diphenolic compounds that are found in leguminous plants and have antiproliferative activities. Findings from several, but not all, studies have shown significant correlations between an isoflavone-rich soy-based diet and reduced incidence of cancer or mortality from cancer in humans. Our laboratory has shown that tocotrienols, but not tocopherols, can suppress NF-κB activation induced by most carcinogens, thus leading to suppression of various genes linked with proliferation, survival, invasion, and angiogenesis of tumors (106).
Epidemiologic study findings suggest that the anticancer/chemopreventive effects of vitamin C against various types of cancers correlate with its antioxidant activities and with the inhibition of inflammation and gap junction intercellular communication. Findings from a recent epidemiologic study showed that a high vitamin C concentration in plasma had an inverse relationship with cancer-related mortality. In 1997, expert panels at the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research estimated that vitamin C can reduce the risk of cancers of the stomach, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, lung, pancreas, and cervix (108).
First, inflammatory markers such as cytokines (such as TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and chemokines), enzymes (such as COX-2, 5-LOX, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9]), and adhesion molecules (such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1, endothelium leukocyte adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) have been closely linked with tumorigenesis. Second, all of these inflammatory gene products have been shown to be regulated by the nuclear transcription factor, NF-κB. Third, NF-κB has been shown to control the expression of other gene products linked with tumorigenesis such as tumor cell survival or antiapoptosis (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, IAP-1, IAP-2, XIAP, survivin, cFLIP, and TRAF-1), proliferation (such as c-myc and cyclin D1), invasion (MMP-9), and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor). Fourth, in most cancers, chronic inflammation precedes tumorigenesis. 153554b96e